Fine Particulate Matter - We measure and mitigate it!
Fine particulate matter 2.5 microns or millionths of a meter (PM2.5) are not only inhalable but easily respirable and easy to deposit into deeper parts of the lung to induce tissue damage and lung inflammation and some may even get into the bloodstream.
These indoor respirable particulates are fine solid particles, aerosols, mist, smoke, dust, fibers and fumes. Some are Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) or Secondhand Smoke (SS) released from the burning edge of cigarette, cigar or pipe and the smoke exhaled by the smokers.
Some fine particulates are carcinogenic to humans and animals.
For PM2.5, short-term exposures (up to 24-hours duration) have been associated with premature mortality, increased hospital admissions for heart or lung causes, acute and chronic bronchitis, asthma attacks, emergency room visits, respiratory symptoms, and restricted activity days. These adverse health effects have been reported at higher risk in infants, children, and older adults with preexisting heart or cardiopulmonary diseases.
Of all of the common air pollutants, PM2.5 is associated with the greatest proportion of adverse health effects related to air pollution, both in the United States and world-wide based on the World Health Organization’s Global Burden of Disease Project.
Short-term exposures to PM10 have been associated primarily with worsening of respiratory diseases, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), leading to hospitalization and emergency department visits.
Long-term (months to years) exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to premature death, particularly in people who have chronic heart or lung diseases, and reduced lung function growth in children.
Particulate matter and these procedures often apply to water, mold, fire and smoke loses.